About | Human Immunology Core (2023)

The Human Immunology Core (HIC) (RRID: SCR_022380) is one of the first and most active immune monitoring cores in the United States. Our mission is to provide wet bench expertise for incorporation of the newest technologies into early phase clinical trials using validated immunology assays and protocols, while also offering turnkey services and expert scientific and technical consultation to investigators conducting basic and translational research.

Scientific Director: Eline (Nina) T. Luning Prak, MD, PhD

About | Human Immunology Core (1)

Dr. Luning Prak is a professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. She is a board-certified clinical pathologist and human immunologist with over 20 years of experience in human translational immunology research, both as director of the Human Immunology Core (HIC) facility and as associate director of the Clinical Immunology lab at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. In the HIC, Dr. Luning Prak oversees many different kinds of cellular and molecular immunology assays, including multicolor immunophenotyping, ELISA, digital ELISA and multiplex bead arrays. In the Clinical Immunology lab, Dr. Luning Prak oversees CLIA-certified assays on patient samples, including serologic assays for the evaluation of antibody responses in autoimmune and infectious diseases. Dr. Luning Prak also directs an NIH-funded research laboratory that focuses on human B cells and adaptive immune receptor repertoire profiling. She is the former president of the Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire Community, an international group of over 150 investigators that perform immune repertoire profiling studies, share and analyze data, and develop data sharing standards. Her lab has developed and/or used methods for immune repertoire profiling including bulk sequencing from DNA, RNA, RNA with molecular identifiers and single cell sequencing (index sorted cells or 10X Genomics). Her research lab and the HIC have also contributed to the development of ImmuneDB, which has been used to analyze and visualize data generated for over 170 different immune repertoire profiling projects.

Honghong Sun, PhD

About | Human Immunology Core (2)

Dr. Sun organizes laboratory operations and manages projects such as blood or biopsy processing for clinical studies and cellular immunology assays involving single-molecule (simoa) / digital ELISA, standard ELISA, Luminex, multicolor immunophenotyping, or ELISPOT. Previously a research associate in the laboratory of Emeritus Professor Youhai Chen, Dr. Sun has expertise in immune cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and apoptosis. Her most recent research work has focused on the TIPE2 protein as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases.

Affiliated Faculty (Apheresis Products): James (Jim) L. Riley, PhD

About | Human Immunology Core (3)

Dr. Riley is a professor of Microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania. In the HIC, Dr Riley oversees production of cell products from HLA-typed apheresis donors. Dr. Riley also directs an NIH-funded research laboratory that focuses on signals controlling primary human T cell activation and function, and how these can be manipulated to develop T cell therapies for HIV, cancer, and autoimmunity.

Acknowledge the HIC in publications when your science has been enabled by our products or services.

Cell Products

The authors thank Lynn Chen, Max Eldabbas, and Emileigh Maddox of the Human Immunology Core at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania for assistance with (INSERT DETAILS - CONTACT JIM RILEY (rileyj@upenn.edu) IF YOU NEED ASSISTANCE). The HIC is supported in part by NIH P30 AI045008 and P30 CA016520. HIC RRID: SCR_022380

HIC Services

The authors thank (INSERT STAFF NAMES, IF APPROPRIATE - CONTACT NINA LUNING PRAK (luning@pennmedicine.upenn.edu) IF YOU NEED ASSISTANCE WITH SPELLINGS) of the Human Immunology Core at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania for assistance with (INSERT DETAILS). The HIC is supported in part by NIH P30 AI045008 and P30 CA016520. HIC RRID: SCR_022380

What products and services does the HIC provide?

We provide cell products from HLA-typed apheresis donors and the following services: blood/tissue processing and banking, sample shipping, cellular immunology assays (such as Luminex, standard and digital ELISA, multicolor immunophenotyping), sequencing and analysis of human BCR and TCR rearrangements, and scientific consultation (such as assay design, study design, letters of support for grant proposals).

What is the cost of the HIC's products and services?

Fees for cell products and each service area are provided in the full fee listing under Accounts, Billing, and Fees section and a downloadable pdf of prices is available (PennKey login required). See the Cell Products menu to find out about subsets offered and our online ordering system. Consultations for Specimen Processing/Banking, Cellular Assays, and BCR/TCR Sequencing and immune repertoire profiling services are free of charge, and we recommend you begin with a consultation after browsing the menu(s) of interest.

How do I order cell products or submit a service request?

Visit the Accounts, Billing, and Fees section and download a copy of .

How does the HIC handle client data?

All data belong to the client. Depending on project complexity, interim results are often provided during a project. Full results are provided upon project completion, and billing occurs after final results are reviewed with the client.

When should I acknowledge the HIC in publications?

Whenever your science has been significantly enabled by HIC cell products, results, or expertise. In some cases, the extent of the HIC's work and support merit contributing authorships by our scientists. Recent publications with our collaborators and instructions for acknowledging the HIC are provided under separate headings in our About section.

The HIC is a Tier 1 core research facility. What does this mean?

Research Core Facilities funded by the NIH are centralized, shared resources providing access to instruments or services for basic, translational, and clinical researchers. A Tier 1 Core supports the highest level of research activity. Therefore, the HIC is subject to stringent requirements and policies specified by the NIH. Like all Biomedical Research Cores at the Perelman School of Medicine, the HIC also has local oversight.

Doesn't the HIC purposefully accumulate profit from the fees charged to Penn clients?

No. The HIC is expected to operate in a revenue-neutral manner. There are numerous NIH and University policies regarding how our (or any Core's) operating surplus may and may not be used. Recent HIC surpluses have allowed us to lower prices for Cell Products, and helped to defray the cost of a new digital ELISA instrument and software upgrade.


Major equipment in the HIC

  • MVE temperature-monitored -80 and liquid nitrogen freezers; MVE CryoCart
  • Temperature-monitored refrigerators
  • Quanterix HD-X
  • FlexMap 3000
  • ImmunoSpot S3
  • Conventional ELISA plate reader
  • Illumina MiSeq
  • Chromium Controller
  • Qubit
  • BioRad UV gel documentation system

Downloadable "boilerplate" text for HIC Equipment and HIC Resources may be used for grant proposals.

(Video) Immunology | Immune System: Overview

HIC publications and publications with our collaborators, July 2021-present

Autoantibodies are highly prevalent in non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections and critical illness. Feng A, Yang EY, Moore AR, Dhingra S, Chang SE, Yin X, Pi R, Mack EK, Völkel S, Geßner R, Gündisch M, Neubauer A, Renz H, Tsiodras S, Fragkou PC, Asuni AA, Levitt JE, Wilson JG, Leong M, Lumb JH, Mao R, Pinedo K, Roque J, Richards CM, Stabile M, Swaminathan G, Salagianni ML, Triantafyllia V, Bertrams W, Blish CA, Carette JE, Frankovich J, Meffre E, Nadeau KC, Singh U, Wang TT, Luning Prak ET, Herold S, Andreakos E, Schmeck B, Skevaki C, Rogers AJ, Utz PJ. JCI Insight. 2023 Feb 8;8(3):e163150. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.163150. PMID: 36752204

Tissue adaptation and clonal segregation of human memory T cells in barrier sites. Poon MML, Caron DP, Wang Z, Wells SB, Chen D, Meng W, Szabo PA, Lam N, Kubota M, Matsumoto R, Rahman A, Luning Prak ET, Shen Y, Sims PA, Farber DL. Nat Immunol. 2023 Feb;24(2):309-319. doi: 10.1038/s41590-022-01395-9. Epub 2023 Jan 19. PMID: 36658238

What are the current driving questions in immune repertoire research? Greiff V, Luning Prak ET, O'Donnell T, Finotello F, Reddy ST, Walczak A, Mora T. Cell Syst. 2022 Sep 21;13(9):683-686. doi: 10.1016/j.cels.2022.08.006. PMID: 36137509

Diversification and shared features of tumor-binding antibody repertoires in tumor, sentinel lymph node, and blood of three patients with breast cancer. Pero, SC, Rosenfeld, AM, Shukla, GS, Mei, L, Sun, Y, Meng, W, Fournier, DJ, Harlow, SP, Robinson, MK, Krag, DN, Luning Prak, ET and BC Harman. Clin. Transl. Immunol. 2022. doi: 10.1002/cti2.1409.

Lipid nanoparticles enhance the efficacy of mRNA and protein subunit vaccines by inducing robust T follicular helper cell and humoral responses. Alameh MG, Tombácz I, Bettini E, Lederer K, Sittplangkoon C, Wilmore JR, Gaudette BT, Soliman OY, Pine M, Hicks P, Manzoni TB, Knox JJ, Johnson JL, Laczkó D, Muramatsu H, Davis B, Meng W, Rosenfeld AM, Strohmeier S, Lin PJC, Mui BL, Tam YK, Karikó K, Jacquet A, Krammer F, Bates P, Cancro MP, Weissman D, Luning Prak ET, Allman D, Locci M, Pardi N. Immunity. 2022 Jun 14;55(6):1136-1138. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2022.05.007. PMID: 35704995

Bulk gDNA Sequencing of Antibody Heavy-Chain Gene Rearrangements for Detection and Analysis of B-Cell Clone Distribution: A Method by the AIRR Community. Rosenfeld AM, Meng W, Horne KI, Chen EC, Bagnara D, Stervbo U, Luning Prak ET; AIRR Community. Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2453:317-343. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2115-8_18. PMID: 35622334

Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire (AIRR) Community Guide to Repertoire Analysis. Marquez S, Babrak L, Greiff V, Hoehn KB, Lees WD, Luning Prak ET, Miho E, Rosenfeld AM, Schramm CA, Stervbo U; AIRR Community. Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2453:297-316. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2115-8_17. PMID: 35622333

AIRR Community Guide to Planning and Performing AIRR-Seq Experiments. Eugster A, Bostick ML, Gupta N, Mariotti-Ferrandiz E, Kraus G, Meng W, Soto C, Trück J, Stervbo U, Luning Prak ET; AIRR Community. Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2453:261-278. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2115-8_15. PMID: 35622331

No increase in inflammation in late-life major depression screened to exclude physical illness. Luning Prak ET, Brooks T, Makhoul W, Beer JC, Zhao L, Girelli T, Skarke C, Sheline YI. Transl Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 24;12(1):118. doi: 10.1038/s41398-022-01883-4. PMID: 35332134

BTK inhibition limits B-cell-T-cell interaction through modulation of B-cell metabolism: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy. Li R, Tang H, Burns JC, Hopkins BT, Le Coz C, Zhang B, de Barcelos IP, Romberg N, Goldstein AC, Banwell BL, Luning Prak ET, Mingueneau M, Bar-Or A. Acta Neuropathol. 2022 Apr;143(4):505-521. doi: 10.1007/s00401-022-02411-w. Epub 2022 Mar 18. PMID: 35303161

IgA Plasma Cells Are Long-Lived Residents of Gut and Bone Marrow That Express Isotype- and Tissue-Specific Gene Expression Patterns. Wilmore JR, Gaudette BT, Gómez Atria D, Rosenthal RL, Reiser SK, Meng W, Rosenfeld AM, Luning Prak ET, Allman D. Front Immunol. 2021 Dec 24;12:791095. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.791095. eCollection 2021. PMID: 35003110

Heterogeneity of human anti-viral immunity shaped by virus, tissue, age, and sex. Poon MML, Byington E, Meng W, Kubota M, Matsumoto R, Grifoni A, Weiskopf D, Dogra P, Lam N, Szabo PA, Ural BB, Wells SB, Rosenfeld AM, Brusko MA, Brusko TM, Connors TJ, Sette A, Sims PA, Luning Prak ET, Shen Y, Farber DL. Cell Rep. 2021 Nov 30;37(9):110071. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110071. PMID: 34852222

(Video) Your Immune System 101: Introduction to Clinical Immunology

A randomized controlled study of convalescent plasma for individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. Bar KJ, Shaw PA, Choi GH, Aqui N, Fesnak A, Yang JB, Soto-Calderon H, Grajales L, Starr J, Andronov M, Mastellone M, Amonu C, Feret G, DeMarshall M, Buchanan M, Caturla M, Gordon J, Wanicur A, Monroy MA, Mampe F, Lindemuth E, Gouma S, Mullin AM, Barilla H, Pronina A, Irwin L, Thomas R, Eichinger RA, Demuth F, Luning Prak ET, Pascual JL, Short WR, Elovitz MA, Baron J, Meyer NJ, Degnan KO, Frank I, Hensley SE, Siegel DL, Tebas P. J Clin Invest. 2021 Dec 15;131(24):e155114. doi: 10.1172/JCI155114. PMID: 34788233

Cellular and humoral immune responses following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in patients with multiple sclerosis on anti-CD20 therapy. Apostolidis, S.A., Kakara, M., Painter, M.M., Goel, R.R., Mathew, D., Lenzi, K., Rezk, A., Patterson, K.R., Espinoza, D.A., Kadri, J.C., Markowitz, D.M., Markowitz, C.E., Mexhitaj, I., Jacobs, D., Babb, A., Betts, M.R., Luning Prak, E.T., Weiskopf, D., Grifoni, A., Lundgreen, K.A., Gouma, S., Sette, A., Bates, P., Henseley, S.E., Greenplate, A.R., Wherry, E.J., Li, R. and A. Bar-Or. 2021. Nature Med. Vol. 27(11): 1990-2001. PMID: 34522051.

mRNA vaccines induce durable immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern. Goel RR, Painter MM, Apostolidis SA, Mathew D, Meng W, Rosenfeld AM, Lundgreen KA, Reynaldi A, Khoury DS, Pattekar A, Gouma S, Kuri-Cervantes L, Hicks P, Dysinger S, Hicks A, Sharma H, Herring S, Korte S, Baxter AE, Oldridge DA, Giles JR, Weirick ME, McAllister CM, Awofolaju M, Tanenbaum N, Drapeau EM, Dougherty J, Long S, D'Andrea K, Hamilton JT, McLaughlin M, Williams JC, Adamski S, Kuthuru O; UPenn COVID Processing Unit‡, Frank I, Betts MR, Vella LA, Grifoni A, Weiskopf D, Sette A, Hensley SE, Davenport MP, Bates P, Luning Prak ET, Greenplate AR, Wherry EJ. Science. 2021 Dec 3;374(6572):abm0829. doi: 10.1126/science.abm0829. Epub 2021 Dec 3. PMID: 34648302

Trivalent nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine yields durable memory B cell protection against genital herpes in preclinical models. Awasthi S, Knox JJ, Desmond A, Alameh MG, Gaudette BT, Lubinski JM, Naughton A, Hook LM, Egan KP, Tam YK, Pardi N, Allman D, Luning Prak ET, Cancro MP, Weissman D, Cohen GH, Friedman HM. J Clin Invest. 2021 Dec 1;131(23):e152310. doi: 10.1172/JCI152310. PMID: 34618692

Long-term outcomes after gene therapy for adenosine deaminase severe combined immune deficiency. Reinhardt B, Habib O, Shaw KL, Garabedian E, Carbonaro-Sarracino DA, Terrazas D, Fernandez BC, De Oliveira S, Moore TB, Ikeda AK, Engel BC, Podsakoff GM, Hollis RP, Fernandes A, Jackson C, Shupien S, Mishra S, Davila A, Mottahedeh J, Vitomirov A, Meng W, Rosenfeld AM, Roche AM, Hokama P, Reddy S, Everett J, Wang X, Luning Prak ET, Cornetta K, Hershfield MS, Sokolic R, De Ravin SS, Malech HL, Bushman FD, Candotti F, Kohn DB. Blood. 2021 Oct 14;138(15):1304-1316. doi: 10.1182/blood.2020010260. PMID: 33974038

New-onset IgG autoantibodies in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Chang SE, Feng A, Meng W, Apostolidis SA, Mack E, Artandi M, Barman L, Bennett K, Chakraborty S, Chang I, Cheung P, Chinthrajah S, Dhingra S, Do E, Finck A, Gaano A, Geßner R, Giannini HM, Gonzalez J, Greib S, Gündisch M, Hsu AR, Kuo A, Manohar M, Mao R, Neeli I, Neubauer A, Oniyide O, Powell AE, Puri R, Renz H, Schapiro J, Weidenbacher PA, Wittman R, Ahuja N, Chung HR, Jagannathan P, James JA, Kim PS, Meyer NJ, Nadeau KC, Radic M, Robinson WH, Singh U, Wang TT, Wherry EJ, Skevaki C, Luning Prak ET, Utz PJ. Nat Commun. 2021 Sep 14;12(1):5417. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25509-3. PMID: 34521836

BLyS neutralization results in selective anti-HLA alloantibody depletion without successful desensitization. Agarwal D, Luning Prak ET, Bharani T, Everly M, Migone TS, Cancro M, Allman D, Choe I, Kearns JD, Trofe-Clark J, Naji A, Kamoun M. Transpl Immunol. 2021 Dec;69:101465. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2021.101465. Epub 2021 Sep 10. PMID: 34506905

Altered function and differentiation of age-associated B cells contribute to the female bias in lupus mice. Ricker, E., Manni, M., Flores-Castro, D., Jenkins, D., Gupta, S., Rivera-Correa, J., Meng, W., Rosenfeld, A.M., Pannellini, T., Bachu, M., Chinenov, Y., Sculco, P.K., Jessberger, R., Luning Prak, E.T. and A.B. Pernis. Nat. Commun. 2021. Vol. 12(1): 4813. Doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25102-8. PMID: 34376664.

TNFRSF13B genotypes control immune-mediated pathology by regulating the functions of innate B cells. De Mattos-Barbosa, M.G., Lefferts, A.R., Huynh, D., Liu, H., Zhang, Y., Fu, B., Barnes, J., Samaniego, M., Bram, R.J., Geha, R.S., Shikanov, A., Luning Prak, E.T., Farkash, E.A., Platt, J.L. and M. Cascalho. 2021. JCI Insight. Vol. 6(17): e150483. Doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.150483. PMID: 34283811.

Transcriptome and unique cytokine microenvironment of Castleman disease. Wing, A., Xu, J., Meng, W., Rosenfeld, A.M., Li, E.Y., Wertheim, G., Paessler, M., Bagg, A., Frank, D., Tan, K., Teachey, D.T., Lim, M.S., Luning Prak, E.T., Fajgenbaum, D.C. and V. Pillai. Mod. Pathol. 2022. Vol. 35(4): 451-461. PMID: 34686774.

The Human Immunology Core at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania is supported in part by NIH P30 AI045008 and P30 CA016520.

Images on this website are from Alex Farley, Nina Luning Prak, or created by DALL-E-2 using prompts from Jean Scholz.

Cell Products

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** Pick up cell products at SCTR (Smilow Center for Translational Research) Floor 8, bay 181 for PBMCs, monocytes, and unpurified apheresis product; or bay 185 for T cells, CD4, CD8, and NK cells.

** Pick up times are 2-2:30 PM for PBMCs and 5:30-6 PM for others.

Clinical Studies, Specimen Processing/Banking - Dr. Honghong Sun

** Samples are dropped off / retrieved at SCL (Stellar-Chance Labs) Room 412

** HIC shipping address

Cellular Assays - Dr. Honghong Sun

** Samples are dropped off at SCL (Stellar-Chance Labs) Room 412

BCR/TCR Sequencing, Immune Repertoire Profiling - Dr. Wenzhao Meng

** Samples are dropped off at SCL (Stellar-Chance Labs) Room 408

Account or billing matters - Path BioResource Help Desk

HIC Shipping Address

Attn: Yangzhu Du, University of Pennsylvania, Stellar Chance Labs Rm. 412, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Telephone +1 267-764-6703

Email Yangzhu.Du@pennmedicine.upenn.edu

(Video) Immune System

(Video) Basic Immunology: Nuts and Bolts of the Immune System


What do you know about immunology? ›

Immunology is the study of the immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through various lines of defence. If the immune system is not functioning as it should, it can result in disease, such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer.

What is basic immunology summary? ›

Basic Immunology focuses on substances that take part in serological reactions, including antigens, antibodies, and the physicochemical nature of immunological reactions. The selection first elaborates on the basic notions of immunity, antigens, immunoglobulins, and the production of antibody.

What is the importance of immunology in healthcare? ›

Immunology is the study of the immune system. Healthcare science staff in this field are involved in the study, diagnosis and management of patients with diseases resulting from disordered immune systems, and conditions in which immunological treatment forms an important part of therapy and/or prevention.

What is immunology in simple terms? ›

The study of the body's immune system.

What is the purpose of immunology? ›

Immunology deals with physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease as well as malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders like allergies, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection and autoimmune disorders.

Why is it important to study immunology? ›

Why is immunology important? The study of immunology is critical to human and animal health and survival. It is at the cutting edge of medical science and has led to some key healthcare advances of recent times, including vaccination and cancer immunotherapy.

What are the basic principles of Immunology? ›

Healthy immunity accomplishes four essential principles: (1) ability to detect and fight off infection; (2) ability to recognize a host's own cells as "self," thereby protecting them from attack; (3) a memory from previous foreign infections; and (4) ability to limit the response after the pathogen has been removed.

What are the three basic immune system responses? ›

Humans have three types of immunity — innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate immunity: Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection.

What is the most important function of the immune system? ›

The immune system has a vital role: It protects your body from harmful substances, germs and cell changes that could make you ill. It is made up of various organs, cells and proteins.

What are two applications of immunology? ›

Immunology covers the examination of cells, tissues, and organs of the immune system, as well as the study of failures in immune function. Important areas of study include autoimmune disease, hypersensitivity reactions, immunodeficiency, immunotherapy, and the role of the immune system in transplant medicine.

What are three ways immunology can be important to public health? ›

From stopping infections in the lungs, to repairing damage in the liver; to preventing cancer in the skin or keeping the resident gut bacteria in check in the colon.

What are the 4 types of immune response? ›

Type I: reaction mediated by IgE antibodies. Type II: cytotoxic reaction mediated by IgG or IgM antibodies. Type III: reaction mediated by immune complexes. Type IV: delayed reaction mediated by cellular response.

What are the 4 types of immunity? ›

Types of immunity: Active natural: Body produces antibodies in response to exposure to a live pathogen. Active artificial: Body produces antibodies in response to a vaccine. Passive natural: Antibodies are passed from the mom to her baby through the placenta and breastmilk.

What is immunology with example? ›

Immunology is the study of the immune system or immunity, a range of defenses developed by humans, for example, to protect against infection by surrounding microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites) and related dangerous pathologies.

Where does immunology work? ›

They typically work in children's hospitals, community hospitals, private offices and university medical centers. College Teaching and Research: Many immunologists find their place teaching as opposed to practicing.

What are the different types of immunology? ›

There are two types of immunity: active and passive.

Is Immunology a basic science? ›

Immunology knowledge as one of the basic sciences that forms the foundations to developing sound clinicians - PMC. The .

What is basic immunology in medicine? ›

Basic Immunology in Medicine To Go is an up-to-date, clinically relevant overview of how the immune system functions and malfunctions, presented in a flexible manner that is accessible and of interest to individuals with various levels of scientific knowledge.

What kills a virus in your body? ›

Medicine that treats viral infections is called an antiviral. These medicines usually stop a virus from making copies of itself. They also may stop a virus from going into or leaving a cell. Many antivirals are made to target the virus and not the host cell.

Which organ produces immune cells? ›

Bone marrow is a sponge-like tissue found inside the bones. That is where most immune system cells are produced and then also multiply. These cells move to other organs and tissues through the blood.

What is the first line of defense of the immune system? ›

The innate immune system is the body's first line of defense against germs entering the body. It responds in the same way to all germs and foreign substances, which is why it is sometimes referred to as the "nonspecific" immune system.

What is the most important protein in the immune system? ›

The major proteins of the immune system are predominantly cytokines (a type of hormone responsible for communication between cells of the immune system), antibodies (immunoglobulins), and complement proteins.

What is the two main types of immune response? ›

There are two broad classes of such responses—antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, and they are carried out by different classes of lymphocytes, called B cells and T cells, respectively.

What are 2 examples of immunity? ›

Examples of innate immunity include: Cough reflex. Enzymes in tears and skin oils. Mucus, which traps bacteria and small particles.

What are 7 medical areas where immunology is applied? ›

Immunology has applications in numerous disciplines of medicine, particularly in the fields of rheumatology, virology, allergology (dermatology), bacteriology, oncology and further transplantation medicine.

What triggers an immune response? ›

Anything that triggers an immune response is called an antigen. An antigen can be a microbe such as a virus, bacteria, toxins, chemicals or other substances that come from outside the body. If the body comes into contact with an antigen for the first time, it will store information about the germ and how to fight it.

What produces antibodies? ›

Antibodies are naturally produced by plasma cells within the human body to mediate an adaptive immune response against invading pathogens. There are five predominant antibodies produced, each specialized to execute certain functions.

What cells are involved in the immune system? ›

Immune cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow and become different types of white blood cells. These include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes (B cells and T cells).

Which vitamins boost immune system? ›

Vitamins B6, C and E are all known for their immune-boosting properties. You can get all of these vitamins from a well-balanced diet, so you don't need supplements. Some foods rich in these vitamins include eggs, bell peppers, spinach and almonds.

What is the most common type of immunity? ›

Active immunity is the most common type. It develops in response to an infection or vaccination.

Where is the human immune system? ›

Bone marrow: Stem cells in the spongy center of your bones develop into red blood cells, plasma cells and a variety of white blood cells and other types of immune cells. Your bone marrow makes billions of new blood cells every day and releases them into your bloodstream.

What is immunology blood test? ›

An immunoglobulins blood test measures the amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA in your blood to help diagnose different types of health conditions that may affect your immune system. Other names: quantitative immunoglobulins, total immunoglobulins, IgG, IgM, IgA testing.

What is immunology and examples? ›

Immunology is the study of the immune system or immunity, a range of defenses developed by humans, for example, to protect against infection by surrounding microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites) and related dangerous pathologies.

What do you learn in an immunology course? ›

This subject will describe the development, function and regulation of cells of the immune system; immunoglobulins; cytokines; immunological mechanisms operating in immunity to infectious disease; autoimmunity; hypersensitivity; and transplantation and tumour immunology.

What are the three types of immunology? ›

Humans have three types of immunity — innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate immunity: Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection.

Which are main types of immunology? ›

There are two types of immunity: active and passive.

What are the three main parts of the immune system? ›

The main parts of the immune system are: white blood cells. antibodies. complement system.

Where is the immune system located? ›

Primary lymphoid organs: These organs include the bone marrow and the thymus. They create special immune system cells called lymphocytes. Secondary lymphoid organs: These organs include the lymph nodes, the spleen, the tonsils and certain tissue in various mucous membrane layers in the body (for instance in the bowel).

What cells produce antibodies? ›

Synthesized exclusively by B cells, antibodies are produced in billions of forms, each with a different amino acid sequence and a different antigen-binding site.

What are the two main parts of an immune response? ›

The immune system is made up of two parts: the innate, (general) immune system and the adaptive (specialized) immune system. These two systems work closely together and take on different tasks.

What do you need for immunology? ›

Jobs in immunology require an advanced degree — specifically a Ph. D. or an M.D. For medical laboratory technician or clinical laboratory technologist position in immunology, a B.S. in a scientific field is suitable.

What is the best major for immunology? ›

What Should I Major in to Become an Immunologist? Most immunologists, 27% to be exact, major in microbiology. Some other common majors for an immunologist include biology and cell biology and anatomical science majors.


1. Human immunity over space and time by Dr. Donna Farber
2. Immunology 201: Application of the Basic Concepts to People
(University of California Television (UCTV))
3. Immune Response to Bacterial Infection (Basics to the Core)
4. Human Leukocyte Antigens | Allergy & Immunology | Pediatrics Audio Pearls
5. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) introduction | MHC Class-1, 2, 3 | | Basic Science Series
(Basic Science Series English)
6. Immunology taught by humans
(Vera Moulton Wall Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease at Stanford)


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Name: Cheryll Lueilwitz

Birthday: 1997-12-23

Address: 4653 O'Kon Hill, Lake Juanstad, AR 65469

Phone: +494124489301

Job: Marketing Representative

Hobby: Reading, Ice skating, Foraging, BASE jumping, Hiking, Skateboarding, Kayaking

Introduction: My name is Cheryll Lueilwitz, I am a sparkling, clean, super, lucky, joyous, outstanding, lucky person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.